Periodontal disease is an infection of the tissue that strengthens tooth in human jaws. Gingiva is not entirely attached as it seems. There is a space in the shape of the letter V between the tooth and gums neck. Periodontal disease attacks the space above, which causes damage to the tooth holder apparatus. When it comes to tissue damage, this space or the sulcus becomes a pocket: Generally, the more severe the disease, the more profound is the pocket!

Periodontal disease was classified according to the severity of the disease. Two important stages of the disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis represents easy and reversible form of periodontal disease which invades the gingiva. Gingivitis can only lead to more severe destructive form of periodontal disease, which is called periodontitis.

There are some factors that increase the risk of periodontal disease development:
  • Smoking
  • Weak oral hygiene, wrong teeth brushing, not using flossing
  • Overuse of alcohol and drugs
  • Usage of face whiteners, mercury based


Systematic diseases:


  • Diabetes, hypertireosis, lupus, pemphigus, Addison’s disease, malign diseases etc.


Medications that impact periodontal disease:


  • Steroids, some antiepileptic medications, anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, some calcium channels blockaders (anti-hypertensives), oral contraceptives, etc.
Other causes :
  • Prosthetics bridges that do not match good with the carrier teeth
  • Fractioned teeth or with vertical cracking
  • Hypovitaminosis
  • Fillers with defect on the gingival part of the tooth
  • Pregnancy etc.


Some attentive signs that can signalize the problem:


  • Easy bleeding gingiva
  • Swelled, tensioned or red gingiva
  • Bad mouth smell or a long term taste change
  • Permanent teeth that move or have a changeable position
  • Any kind of change on biting during eating
  • Any kind of change in the position and function of partial prosthetics

It is possible that periodontal disease exists but you don’t have the signs listed above. This is one of the reasons why we need to make regular checks and see how important is the periodontal examination. Treatments methods depend on the stage of developing the disease and how the disease has progressed. Regular cleaning combined with deep cleaning and treatment of gums with tetracycline, may be necessary. Continued instructions given for home care, are essential for the maintenance of oral hygiene and prevention of recurrence of periodontitis. You should not lose teeth due to the periodontal disease. Careful brushing and cleaning between your teeth, a balanced diet and regular visits to the dentist enable a healthy smile.